1. Baudhayana

Born: Around 800 BC

Notable Work: Approximation of the square root of 2 and the statement of a version of the Pythagorean Theorem

2. Katyayana

Born: Around 300 BC

Notable Work: Varttika, Vyakarana, later Sulba Sutras

3. Pingala

Born: Around 500 BC

Notable Work: Matrameru, binary numeral system, arithmetical triangle

4. Aryabhata

Born: Between 476-550 CE

Notable works: Aryabhaṭiya, Arya-siddhanta

Notable Ideas: Explanation of lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, rotation of Earth on its axis, reflection of light by moon, sinusoidal functions, solution of single variable quadratic equation, value of π correct to 4 decimal places, circumference of Earth to 99.8% accuracy, calculation of the length of sidereal year.

5. Varahamihira

Born: Between 505–587 CE

Notable Work: Pancha-Siddhāntikā, Brihat-Samhita, Brihat Jataka

6. Yativrsabha

Born: Around 6th-century CE

Known for: Mathematician and writer of the book Tiloyapannatti which gives various units for measuring distances and time and postulated different concepts about infinity

7. Brahmagupta

Born: Between 598–670 CE

Known for: Zero, Modern number system, Brahmagupta’s theorem, Brahmagupta’s identity, Brahmagupta’s problem, Brahmagupta-Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta’s interpolation formula, Brahmagupta’s formula

8. Bhaskara I

Born: Between 600–680 CE

Known for: Sine approximation formula

9. Shridhara

Born: Between 650–850 CE

Contribution: Gave a rule for finding the volume of a sphere

10. Mahavira

Born: 9th century CE

Notable Work: His work is a highly syncopated approach to algebra and the emphasis in much of his text is on developing the techniques necessary to solve algebraic problems.

11. Pavuluri Mallana

Born: 11th century CE

Notable Work: He translated Ganitasara Samgraham, a mathematical treatise of Mahivaracharya, into Telugu as Sara Sangraha Ganitamu.

12. Bhaskara II

Born: 1114–1185 CE

Known for: Discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations

13. Narayana Pandit

Born: Between 1340–1400 CE

Notable Work: Arithmetical treatise called Ganita Kaumudi ; Algebraic treatise called Bijganita Vatamsa

14. Madhava of Sangamagrama

Born: 1340-1350 CE

Known for: Discovery of power series expansions of trigonometric sine, cosine and arctangent functions

Notable work: Golavada, Madhyamanayanaprakara, Venvaroha

15. Parameshvara

Born: Between AD 1360–1455

Notable Work: Discovered drk-ganita, a mode of astronomy based on observations

16. Nilakantha Somayaji

Born: Around AD1444

Notable Work: Golasara, Candrachayaganita, Aryabhatiya-bhashya, Tantrasamgraha Raghunatha Siromani

17. Shankara Variyar

Born: Around AD1530

Notable Work: Yukti-dipika – an extensive commentary in verse on Tantrasamgraha based on Yuktibhasa; Laghu-vivrti – a short commentary in prose on Tantrasamgraha; Kriya-kramakari – a lengthy prose commentary on Lilavati of Bhaskara II

18. Jyeshtadeva

Born: Around AD1500

Known for: Authorship of Yuktibhaṣa

Notable work: Yuktibhāṣā, Drkkarana

19. Munishvara

Born: Around 17th century

Notable Work: Produced accurate sine tables

20. Kamalakara

Born: Around AD 1657

Notable Work: Combined traditional Indian astronomy with Aristotelian physics and Ptolemaic astronomy as presented by Islamic scientists; Given formulae for sin(A/2) and sin(A/4) in terms of sin(A) and iterative formulae for sin(A/3) and sin(A/5); Given a table for finding the right ascension of a planet from its longitude.

21. Jagannatha Samrat

Born: Around AD1730

Notable Work: Siddhanta-samrat, Yantra-prakara

22. Radhanath Sikdar

Born: Around 1813 AD

Known for: Calculated height of Mount Everest

23. Pathani Samanta

Born: 11 January, 1835-36 AD

Known for: Naked eye astronomy

24. Ganesh Prasad

Born: 15 November, 1876 AD

Known for: Establishing the culture of organised mathematical research in India

Notable work: A Treatise on Spherical Harmonics and the Functions of Bessel and Lame

25. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Born: 22 December 1887

Known for: Landau–Ramanujan constant; Mock theta functions; Ramanujan conjecture; Ramanujan prime; Ramanujan–Soldner constant; Ramanujan theta function; Ramanujan’s sum; Rogers–Ramanujan identities; Ramanujan’s master theorem

26. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Born: 29 June 1893

Known for: Mahalanobis distance Feldman–Mahalanobis model

27. Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai

Born: April 5, 1901

Known for: Pillai’s conjecture; Pillai’s arithmetical function; Pillai prime

28. Raj Chandra Bose

Born: 19 June 1901

Known for: Association scheme; Bose–Mesner algebra; Euler’s conjecture on Latin squares; strongly regular graphs; Partial Geometries; Morse code

29. Samarendra Nath Roy

Born: 11 December 1906

Known for: Multivariate analysis

30. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Born: 19 October 1910

Known for: Chandrasekhar limit; Chandra X-ray Observatory; Chandrasekhar friction; Chandrasekhar number; Chandrasekhar tensor; Chandrasekhar equation; Chandrasekhar virial equations; Chandrasekhar’s Variational Principle; 1958 Chandra; Schonberg–Chandrasekhar limit

31. S. S. Shrikhande

Born: 19 October 1917

Known for: Euler’s conjecture

32. Prahladbhai Chunilal Vaidya

Born: 23 May 1918

Known for: Vaidya Metric, Vaidya–Patel solution, Einstein field equations

33. Anil Kumar Gain

Born: 1 February 1919

Known for: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Vidyasagar University

34. C. R. Rao

Born: 10 September 1920

Known for: Cramér–Rao bound, Rao–Blackwell theorem, Orthogonal arrays, Score test

35. Harish chandra

Born: 11 October 1923

Known for: Harish-Chandra’s c-function;Harish-Chandra’s character formula; Harish-Chandra homomorphism; Harish-Chandra isomorphism; Harish-Chandra module; Harish-Chandra’s regularity theorem; Harish-Chandra’s Schwartz space; Harish Chandra transform; Harish-Chandra’s Ξ function

36. Raghu Raj Bahadur

Born: 30 April 1924

Known for: Bahadur efficiency; Anderson–Bahadur algorithm; Bahadur-Ghosh-Kiefer representation

37. Gopinath Kallianpur

Born: April 25, 1925

Known for: Fisher consistency

38. Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar

Born: July 22, 1930

Known for: Abhyankar’s conjecture, Abhyankar’s lemma, Abhyankar–Moh theorem

39. C.S. Seshadri

Born: February 29, 1932

Known for: Seshadri constant; Narasimhan–Seshadri theorem;standard monomial theory

40. K. S. S. Nambooripad

Born: 6 April 1935

41. Vinod Behari Johri

Born: 10 June 1935

Known for: Power law inflation in Brans–Dicke theory; Theory of integrated tracking of quintessence fields of dark energy;Phantom cosmologies

42. K. R. Parthasarathy

Born: 25 June 1936

Known for: Quantum stochastic calculus

43. Veeravalli S. Varadarajan

Born: May 1937

Known for: Trombi–Varadarajan theorem

44. Vasanti N. Nayak

Born: 10 June 1938

Known for: Combinatorial design and Graph Theory

45. Srinivasa Varadhan

Born: 2 January 1940

Known for: Martingale problems; large deviation theory

46. Vashishtha Narayan Singh

Born: April 2, 1942

Known for: Reproducing Kernels and Operators with a Cyclic Vector

47. Siddani Bhaskara Rao

Born: 1943

Known for: Frequency partition,Line graphs, Degree sequences

48. N. M. Singhi

Born: 1949

Known for: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

Sujatha Ramdorai

Known for: non-commutative Iwasawa theory, Arithmetic of Algebraic varieties

49. Narendra Krishna Karmarkar

Born: 1957

Known for: Karmarkar’s algorithm

50. Manindra Agrawal

Born: 20 May, 1966

Known for: AKS primality test

51. Chandrashekhar Khare

Born: 1968

Known for: Proof of Serre conjecture

52. Subhash Khot

Known for: Unique games conjecture

53. Dr. Neena Gupta

Known for: Providing a counter-example over a field of positive characteristic to the special Zariski Cancellation Problem

In the above list of Indian Mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India will enhance the general knowledge of the readers.